Anthony Trollope

Biografie şi Bibliografie

Anthony Trollope (24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. Some of his best-loved works, collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, revolve around the imaginary county of Barsetshire. He also wrote penetrating novels on political, social, and gender issues, and on other topical conflicts of his day.

Trollope has always been a popular novelist. Noted fans have included Sir Alec Guinness (who never travelled without a Trollope novel), former British Prime Ministers Harold Macmillan and Sir John Major, economist John Kenneth Galbraith, American novelists Sue Grafton and Dominick Dunne and soap opera writer Harding Lemay. Trollope's literary reputation dipped somewhat during the last years of his life, but he regained the esteem of critics by the mid-twentieth century.


Anthony Trollope's father, Thomas Anthony Trollope, worked as a barrister. Thomas Trollope, though a clever and well-educated man and a Fellow of New College, Oxford, failed at the bar due to his bad temper. In addition, his ventures into farming proved unprofitable and he lost an expected inheritance when an elderly uncle married and had children. Nonetheless, he came from a genteel background, with connections to the landed gentry, and so wished to educate his sons as gentlemen and for them to attend Oxford or Cambridge. The disparity between his family's social background and its poverty would be the cause of much misery to Anthony Trollope during his boyhood.
Harrow School

Born in London, Anthony attended Harrow School as a day-boy for three years from the age of seven, as his father's farm lay in that neighbourhood. After a spell at a private school, he followed his father and two older brothers to Winchester College, where he remained for three years. He returned to Harrow as a day-boy to reduce the cost of his education. Trollope had some very miserable experiences at these two public schools. They ranked as two of the most élite schools in England, but Trollope had no money and no friends, and was bullied a great deal. At the age of twelve, he fantasized about suicide. However, he also daydreamed, constructing elaborate imaginary worlds.

In 1827, his mother Frances Trollope moved to America with Trollope's three younger siblings, where she opened a bazaar in Cincinnati, which proved unsuccessful. Thomas Trollope joined them for a short time before returning to the farm at Harrow, but Anthony stayed in England throughout. His mother returned in 1831 and rapidly made a name for herself as a writer, soon earning a good income. His father's affairs, however, went from bad to worse. He gave up his legal practice entirely and failed to make enough income from farming to pay rents to his landlord Lord Northwick. In 1834 he fled to Belgium to avoid arrest for debt. The whole family moved to a house near Bruges, where they lived entirely on Frances's earnings.

In Belgium, Anthony was offered a commission in an Austrian cavalry regiment. In order to accept it, he needed to learn French and German; he had a year in which to acquire these languages. To learn them without expense to himself and his family, he took a position as an usher in a school in Brussels, which position made him the tutor of thirty boys. After six weeks of this, however, he received an offer of a clerkship in the General Post Office, obtained through a family friend. He returned to London in the fall of 1834 to take up this post. Thomas Trollope died in the following year.

According to Trollope, "the first seven years of my official life were neither creditable to myself nor useful to the public service."[5] At the Post Office, he acquired a reputation for unpunctuality and insubordination. A debt of £12 to a tailor fell into the hands of a moneylender and grew to over £200; the lender regularly visited Trollope at his work to demand payments. Trollope hated his work, but saw no alternatives and lived in constant fear of dismissal.


Novels unless otherwise noted:

    * The Macdermots of Ballycloran (1847)
    * The Kellys and the O'Kellys (1848)
    * La Vendée:An Historical Romance (1850)
    * The Warden (1855) Chronicles of Barsetshire #1
    * Barchester Towers (1857) Chronicles of Barsetshire #2
    * The Three Clerks (1858)
    * Doctor Thorne (1858) Chronicles of Barsetshire #3
    * The West Indies and the Spanish Main (travel) (1859)
    * The Bertrams (1859)
    * Castle Richmond (1860)
    * Framley Parsonage (1861) Chronicles of Barsetshire #4
    * Tales of All Countries--1st Series (stories) (1861)
    * Tales of All Countries--2nd Series (stories) (1863)
    * Tales of All Countries--3rd Series (stories) (1870)
    * Orley Farm (1862)
    * North America (travel) (1862)
    * The Struggles of Brown, Jones & Robinson (1862)
    * Rachel Ray (1863)
    * The Small House at Allington (1864) Chronicles of Barsetshire #5
    * Malachi's Cove (1864)
    * Can You Forgive Her? (1865) Palliser Novel #1
    * Miss Mackenzie (1865)
    * Hunting Sketches (sketches) (1865)
    * Travelling Sketches (sketches) (1866)
    * Clergymen of the Church of England (sketches) (1866)
    * The Belton Estate (1866)
    * The Claverings (1867)
    * Nina Balatka (1867)
    * Last Chronicle of Barset (1867) Chronicles of Barsetshire #6
    * Lotta Schmidt & Other Stories (1867)
    * Linda Tressel (1868)
    * Phineas Finn (1869) Palliser Novel #2
    * He Knew He Was Right (1869)
    * Did He Steal It? (play) (1869)
    * On English Prose Fiction as a Rational Amusement(essay) )1869)
    * The Vicar of Bullhampton (1870)
    * An Editor's Tales (stories) (1870)
    * The Commentaries of Caesar (school textbook) (1870)
    * Sir Harry Hotspur of Humblethwaite (1871)
    * Ralph the Heir (1871)
    * The Golden Lion of Granpère (1872)
    * Australia and New Zealand (travel) (1873)
    * The Eustace Diamonds (1873) Palliser Novel #3
    * Harry Heathcote of Gangoil (1874)
    * Lady Anna (1874)
    * New South Wales & Queensland(travel) (1874)
    * Phineas Redux (1874) Palliser Novel #4
    * The Way We Live Now (1875)
    * The Prime Minister (1876) Palliser Novel #5
    * The American Senator (1877)
    * Is He Popenjoy? (1878)
    * South Africa (travel) (1878)
    * How the 'Mastiffs' Went to Iceland (travel) (1878)
    * Iceland (travel, for an unpublished Fortnightly Review) (1878)
    * John Caldigate (1879)
    * An Eye for an Eye (1879)
    * Cousin Henry (1879)
    * Thackeray (criticism) (1879), English Men of Letters Series #11
    * The Duke's Children (1880) Palliser Novel #6
    * Life of Cicero (biography) (1880)
    * Ayala's Angel (1881)
    * Doctor Wortle's School (1881)
    * Why Frau Frohmann Raised Her Prices and other Stories (stories) (1882)
    * Lord Palmerston (biography) (1882)
    * The Fixed Period (1882)
    * Kept in the Dark (1882)
    * Marion Fay (1882)
    * Mr. Scarborough's Family (1883)
    * An Autobiography (autobiography) (1883)
    * The Landleaguers (unfinished novel) (1883)
    * An Old Man's Love (1884)
    * The Noble Jilt (play) (1923)
    * London Tradesmen (sketches) (1927)
    * The New Zealander (essay) (1972)

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